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Biomarker Decetor with The Innovation

The Importance of Tear Fluid Biomarkers

Collectively, relatively safe, non-invasive and inexpensive collection of tears with minimal discomfort to patients, and frequent alteration in constituents in the presence of systemic diseases render tears a desirable alternative source of biomarkers. In addition, relatively low levels of high-abundant proteins, such as albumin and immunoglobulins that are found in serum can eliminate additional depletion steps that may cause distortion of potentially important proteins. However, the limitation of collection volume, and thus the small amount of potential biomarkers requires standardized collection methods and reliable techniques to ensure reproducible and quantifiable results. Currently proteomic techniques employing various mass spectrometries are only available tools for tear biomarker analysis.

Proteomic analysis identifies almost 500 proteins from human tear fluids by mass spectrometry analysis (2006 Genome biology). Other than proteins, tear fluids also contain smaller molecules such as neurotransmitters, amino acids such as homocysteine and metabolites.

To develop three specific aptamers targeting human alpha-synuclein (Parkinson’s disease), amyloid-beta (Aβ, Alzheimer’s disease) and C1Q1 (breast cancer).
It has been reported that Aβ1-40 is a constituent of drusen, hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration, causing inflammation of retinal pigment epithelium (Liu et al., 2013). In Alzheimer’s disease, Aβ plaques in the retina are often observed in patients at the presymptomatic stage (Koronyo-Hamaoui et al., 2011; Koronyo et al., 2012). Amyloid plaques are extracellular aggregation of toxic Aβ proteins shed from cells, raising the possibility that it could be contained in tears as well. Alpha-synuclein is a major component in Lewy bodies, a pathologic hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. Aggregation of alpha-synuclein increases its cellular toxicity, rendering it a major therapeutic target of Parkinson’s disease. Our lab recently observed that alpha-synuclein is abundantly expressed in granular cells in the retina and increased in Parkinson’s disease animal model. Recently the presence of misfolded alpha-synuclein in the retina was reported in Parkinson’s disease, suggesting non-synaptic propagation of alpha-synuclein (Bodis-Wollner et al., 2014). Lastly, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that the profile of tear proteome can potentially differentiates breast cancer patients with healthy individuals. Study demonstrated that C1Q1, a complement factor, in tear fluids is significantly increased in breast cancer patients (Bohm et al., 2012).

Successful development of the contact lens-based biomarker array platform may overcome current technical hurdles in using tear fluids as a novel source of biomarker detection. The sensitivity in detecting trace amount of biomarkers in tear fluids could be dramatically raised by controlling contact lens wearing time.

Technology for Biomarker Detection

Target Biomarker specific selection and synthesis of DNA Aptamer

How Bio Contact Lens Works

Comparison between Bio Contact Lens and Others

Advantages of Contact lens-based Biomarker detection from Tear Fluids over other biospecimens


  • Invasive, painful
  • Large volume required
  • Medical staff need
  • Expensive
  • One Time Sampling

Nexmos Contact Lens

  • Non-invasive
  • Collect sample by wearing
  • Patients-initiated & easy
  • Inexpensive
  • Continuous Sampling

Diseases for Nexmos Contact Lens Applications

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

    Healthy Brain    Severe AD

    Amyloid b is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target of Alzheimer’s disease

    Bio Contact Lens could also contributes early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

  • Parkinson’s disease

    Huge clinical as well as research efforts to identify early Biomarker.
    a-Synuclein in Lewy body is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target of Parkinson’s disease

    Bio Contact Lens could detect trance amount of a-Synuclein in tears and revolutionize early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease.

  • Cancers

    Cancer biomarkers are molecules that are indicative of the presence of cancer in the body.
    Cancer biomarkers could be potentially used for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment predictions as well as monitoring treatment response.

    It has been demonstrated that various cancers patients including breast and prostate cancer have unique biomarker molecules in Tear fluids.